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Steve Foss

More ladyslippers than you can shake a stick at

22 posts in this topic

Up here in the boreal country, yellow ladyslippers are less common than stemless (pink) ladyslippers. I've found a spot for yellows, and just 100 yards farther down, pink ladyslippers can be found.

Two things are unusual about this location this year. One is that the yellows and stemless are all prime right now, at the same time. Usually, the stemless go prime about 10 days to 2 weeks before the yellows. I think our cool spring kept the stemless in check long enough so that when they popped, the yellows were popping too.

Second thing is that, while there are about a dozen yellows, including a clump of five, there are several hundred stemless. The stemless is the most commonly found ladyslipper up here but usually is found in singles, pairs or triples. I found several clumps today with 7 blooms in a clump, all blooming at the same time, and one photo below shows 8 clumped blooms.

Needless to say, I'm marking the spot on the map of my mind. Best part is they are not visible from any trail. I found a clump of 6-7 stemless last year blooming right next to a trail and when I returned to do more photography a week later they'd been cut off at the ground.

Within a week the stemless and yellow show will be mostly finished, and our attention will turn to showy ladyslippers and a host of other midsummer orchids. gringrin

All from this morning with the Canon 30D, iso400, tripod and remote shutter release, some with mirror lock-up enabled, all with diffusion disc to mellow harsh sun

Small yellow ladyslippers in tandem

Canon 100 f2.8 macro, 1/80 @ f5.6

3643769281_aba50c20be_o.jpg

Stemless (pink) in a clump. Note the accompanying plants (blueberry, moss, balsam, bunchberry, Canada mayflower, clintonia, Labrador tea, among others) and you'll always know good places to look for stemless ladslippers

Canon 10-22 @ 16mm, 1/40 @ f8

3643776471_67ce69631f_o.jpg

Clump No. 2

10-22 @ 22mm, 1/25 @ f13

3644580346_4661689780_o.jpg

Alone, but not alone

10-22 @ 16mm, 1/60 @ f5.6

3643772885_06c483fac7_o.jpg

On dry land

Stemless ladyslippers grow in a dizzying variety of landscapes, from dry jackpine forests to the wettest black spruce/sphagnum bogs

10-22 @ 10mm, 1/160 @ f9

3643771169_030a958b1c_o.jpg

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Beautiful slippers. I can't believe anybody would be so idiotic and selfish, as to take them from their environment.

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Very nice Steve!......Never tire of looking at these beautiful slippers!......Are those "yellows" the large or smaller variety?....The ones I found were pushing 24" so certainly the larger variety....I also found a large patch of "pinks" last year with about 75 flowers but this year that same patch was nonexistent and didn't bloom for whatever reason...

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Jonny, pretty sure they were the small variety (I labeled them "small" when I posted). They were two feet tall, with flowers a good bit smaller than the large subspecies.

A couple things make it dicey to ID the variety based on height of the plant. They overlap quite a bit. The small is 12-43 cm, the large 18-60 cm long. And where they both occur in the same range (most of their Minnesota range is roughly the same), they can interbreed, producing plants with characteristics of both varieties.

So the ones pictured are 2 feet tall, which makes them a bit over 43 cm, but they had very small flowers, and sometimes in shady environments, plants will grow taller in an effort to find the sun. We have yellows near our cabin north of Bemidji with blossom pouches three times as large as the ones pictured here.

I'm fairly comfortable calling them "small" variety yellow ladyslippers, but I think it would take a botanist to be make a positive ID.

I use Welby Smith's Orchids of Minnesota to ID orchids, but it is not user friendly unless one is a botanist, and it can be difficult for someone like me to make sure I've got what I think I've got. Aside from use of the metric system instead of inches/feet, the photographs of each species are in a central section of plates, like the old fashioned bird guides) instead of a photo/photos to go along with each species account and illustration. I know the book is in the process of being re-vamped (I've sent in several orchid images for consideration in the new guide), and I hope they make it easier for non-botanists to use.

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Thanks for the info Steve......Now I'm not sure what my yellows were/are grin....I noticed the "sepals"(I think they're called sepals) the 3 twisted tendril type brownish things on my yellows are longer then in your images...not sure what bearing that might have on plant ID...

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Jonny, the various parts of both varieties vary a lot in length, in many cases overlapping each other. According to Smith, if the pouch is over 3 cm long (1.2 inches) it's almost certainly the large variety, but if it's smaller than 3 cm it may be either the small variety, a smaller specimen of the large variety or the offspring of both varieties.

See, clear as mud! gringrin

One other field mark I forgot to mention in my last post is that the twisty petals/sepals of the large variety are more yellowish-green, while they tend to be red-brown on the small variety. It's not an absolute field mark, however, just another one to be balanced with other field marks in trying to pin down variety.

On the bright side, they are the only two variety of yellow ladyslipper in Minnesota, so confusing as they are, they ARE the same species, and the varieties can only be confused with each other. smilesmile

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Thanks again Steve....."If greater then 1.2" ".......My yellows were definitely greater then 1.2"...They were close to 1.75"....some even larger if I remember.....Im going with the large variety grin.....I just hope nobody picks the ones I found as they are just off the road to a local lake...2 plants were on the shoulder!....Find out next year I guess.....I'll send you an E-mail if you'd like Steve of "my batch" location....it takes years for these plants to flower and develop as I just researched and read....

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Thanks Jonny, but I've got a bunch of 25 scattered large variety yellows along a private road near our lake cabin by Bemidji, and a ton of images of them in the archives. smilesmile

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Sounds like you got a ton of em!.....I'm finding out that I can take so many pics of the slippers and they all end up kinda the same from year to year also grin....every year brings a "couple" new ones!

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Me too. This is the sixth year shooting ladyslippers, and every year I look at how I've done it before and see if I can do it the same way -- but better -- as well as experimenting with new ways.

The perfect picture is out there. I hope I never find it, but it's fun to keep looking through the lens. smilesmile

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One other field mark I forgot to mention in my last post is that the twisty petals/sepals of the large variety are more yellowish-green, while they tend to be red-brown on the small variety. It's not an absolute field mark, however, just another one to be balanced with other field marks in trying to pin down variety.

That's what I noticed on my photos from the Arboretum on May 20th. I had the advantage of having labels on all of the clumps, but the smalls were distinctly Minnesota gopher colors, and the large more of a greenish rust. Nice photos.

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Those are incredible Steve, as usual! That diffusion screen sure gives you a nice lighting. I like the one by the stump the best.

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Gorgeous images! I love all the slippers you guys have found & shared, I have looked and looked around our cabin and haven't seen any although we have most of the other plants you mentioned - I think I'll venture into the Chippewa Nat'l Forest next week and see if I can find anything there..

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Nice lookin' stash of slippers Mr. Foss! I like the yellows from just a bit different angle, and those clumps are unreal!

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Nice lookin' stash of slippers Mr. Foss! I like the yellows from just a bit different angle, and those clumps are unreal!

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Lovely shots Steve (as always)! Do you usually find ladyslippers in close proximity to bunchberry? I think it's great that you have the two together in one shot.

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Mike, most locations that grow stemless and yellow ladyslippers also grow bunchberry. However, lots and lots of locations that grow bunchberry don't also grow ladyslippers.

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Steve -

These are very lovely shots. I assume by now these are almost done and the showy's will be starting? I ask because I'll be in Lake of the Woods next week and hope to pull hubby away from fishing long enough to get out and try finding some flowers to shoot.

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Debbie, you may still find yellows. Check the median ditch between the split lanes of Hwy. 11 from Warroad to Baudette. There have generally been tons of blooming yellow and showy ladyslippers in those ditches. Good luck will mean you get some late yellows AND early showies. Bad luck will mean you're right between the two with neither prime.

So let's wish for good luck, and watch out for poison ivy! gringrin

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Thank you for the tip Steve and I will watch for PI. Don't need to be miserable on vacation!

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And don't forget how stunningly effective the 100-400 can be as a floral lens, particularly with medium-large blooms like ladyslippers. I know it's only an f5.6 lens, but part of its great bokeh is due to the large number of aperture blades, and if you get a background far enough away and your blooms are just past the minimum focus distance of the lens at 400mm, you've really got something special there. A very different effect than the 100 macro. To this day, some of my favorite (and most popular) flower images were captured with the 100-400. Darn good butterfly lens, too. smilesmile

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    • Minnesota DNR News
      For Immediate Release:
      July 21, 2017
      In This Issue

      Conserving Mille Lacs walleye population requires regulation changes

      Mille Lacs Lake Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for summer 2017

      Conserving Mille Lacs walleye population requires regulation changes

      Walleye fishing on Mille Lacs Lake will remain closed until Aug. 11 to protect the walleye fishery, and ensure its long-term health and sustainability into the future

      To extend the walleye fishing season through Labor Day, the state will allow for an additional 11,000 pounds of walleye harvest on Mille Lacs 

      New solutions are being sought to rebuild and sustain a healthy Mille Lacs walleye fishery

      New fisheries data collected by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources show the total safe harvest allocation for walleyes on Mille Lacs Lake (44,800 pounds) has already been exceeded this season. To protect the fishery and ensure the long-term sustainability of Mille Lacs Lake’s walleye population, the DNR announced today that walleye fishing will remain closed until Friday, Aug. 11.

      In order to extend the walleye fishing season through Labor Day, the state will allow for an additional 11,000 pounds of walleye harvest. Catch-and-release walleye fishing will run from Friday, Aug. 11, through Monday, Sept. 4, for the Labor Day weekend. Walleye fishing will then be closed from Tuesday, Sept. 5, through Thursday, Nov. 30.

      As these regulation changes were announced, Minnesota DNR Commissioner Tom Landwehr reiterated the state’s commitment to rebuilding and sustaining a healthy walleye fishery in Mille Lacs Lake.

      “Improving the walleye population in Mille Lacs is a top priority for the DNR,” Landwehr said. “We deeply regret the hardships these new regulations will cause for anglers and business owners. But they are essential to protect and enhance the future of walleye fishing in the lake for future generations. We will continue doing everything we can to understand the challenges facing the walleye fishery, and take whatever actions we can to resolve this very difficult situation.”

      Landwehr and DNR fisheries chief Don Pereira noted that allowing for additional catch-and-release fishing in August is essential for area anglers, businesses, and Mille Lacs area communities. The decision to allow for this additional harvest was made with input from the Mille Lacs Fisheries Advisory Committee.

      “We want to allow as much walleye fishing on Mille Lacs as possible,” Pereira said. “So even though state anglers already have caught their quota of fish, the DNR will dip into the allowed conservation overage to reopen the season on Aug. 11.”

      Through the closure, anglers on Mille Lacs Lake may fish for all other species in the lake including bass, muskellunge and northern pike. When fishing for other species, only artificial baits and lures will be allowed in possession, except for anglers targeting northern pike or muskie, who may fish with sucker minnows longer than 8 inches.

      A prohibition on night fishing will remain in place from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. through Nov. 30. However, anglers may fish for muskie and northern pike at night, but may only use artificial lures longer than 8 inches or sucker minnows longer than 8 inches. Bowfishing for rough fish also is allowed at night but possession of angling equipment is not allowed and only rough fish may be in possession.

      Understanding walleye fishing quotas on Mille Lacs this year, and why that quota was reached earlier than predicted
      The DNR and the Chippewa bands that cooperatively manage Mille Lacs Lake agreed this year to harvest quotas of 44,800 pounds for state anglers and 19,200 pounds for tribal fishing. They also agreed that up to 75,000 pounds of walleye could be harvested from the lake from Dec. 1, 2016 to Nov. 30, 2017.

      That agreement allows the state to use a built-in buffer – the 11,000 pounds difference between the 75,000 pounds conservation cap and the 64,000 pounds combined harvest quotas – in an attempt to allow catch-and-release walleye fishing through Labor Day, following the mid-summer closure. Bi-weekly creel surveys show that state anglers already have reached their quota.

      “The DNR is using its full allotment to maximize opportunities to fish for walleye on Mille Lacs without violating our agreement,” Pereira said. “The DNR, just like area businesses, would greatly prefer to not have fishing restrictions in place. But sustaining and stabilizing Mille Lacs’ walleye population is our primary obligation and public responsibility.”

      Continuing the walleye fishing closure will reduce the number of fish that die after being caught and released, a condition known as hooking mortality. The likelihood of fish suffering hooking mortality increases as water temperatures warm.

      High walleye catch rates on Mille Lacs have increased DNR fishing projections. A hot walleye bite attracted more anglers to the lake, resulting in angler effort that is about double what it was in 2016.

      “Cooler than normal temperatures kept hooking mortality rates low, but more anglers fished Mille Lacs, particularly catching walleye longer than 20 inches,” Pereira said. “That increased the poundage of fish caught and put us over our walleye quota.”

      According to the DNR, bigger fish are biting, in part, because there is a shortage of food for larger walleye. Last fall’s assessment showed that larger walleye were thinner than average.

      Mille Lacs’ hot bite also reflects the findings of studies done in many other fisheries that show catchability actually increases when fish population drops. In Mille Lacs, walleye congregate in preferred spots rather than disperse evenly throughout the lake. Fewer fish in the lake means there is more room in the preferred spots for fish to gather, creating a situation where a larger percentage of the population is in position to be caught rather than gathering in a less preferred but less fished area.

      More information about Mille Lacs Lake, the regulation adjustments and management of the fishery is available on the DNR page at www.mndnr.gov/millelacslake.

      New solutions are being sought to improve and sustain a healthy walleye fishery
      The DNR announced in June that a new external review team of scientists will take a fresh look at Mille Lacs Lake’s walleye fishery, using all of the best science available to gain a better understanding of the lake. This new review, led by walleye expert Dr. Chris Vandergoot of the U.S. Geological Survey, will provide additional recommendations to improve fisheries management of the lake, and contribute to a long-term solution to improving and sustaining a healthy walleye fishery for future generations. The group’s report is expected in time to help guide and inform fisheries management decisions for the 2018 season.

      DNR encourages Minnesotans to fish for other abundant species on Mille Lacs Lake
      As today’s walleye fishing regulation changes were announced, the DNR encouraged all Minnesotans to visit Mille Lacs Lake to fish the other abundant species that the lake has to offer. Mille Lacs Lake’s other opportunities for top-notch fishing will not be affected by the regulation adjustment.

      Bassmaster Magazine named Mille Lacs the nation’s best bass lake in June and will send 50 of the country’s best anglers to the lake In September for its Angler of the Year tournament. Northern pike abound in Mille Lacs, along with muskellunge. In early July, a woman from southern Minnesota caught and released in Mille Lacs what may have been Minnesota’s largest-ever muskellunge.

      To learn more about Mille Lacs Lake and its many great fishing opportunities, visit the DNR page. To plan visit to the Mille Lacs area, visit the Mille Lacs Area Tourism Council page.

      ###

      Mille Lacs Lake Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for summer 2017
      Q: What is happening with the walleye season this summer on Mille Lacs Lake?

      A: The closure that began July 8 and was set to end July 28 is being extended by two weeks. That means walleye fishing will reopen at 6:01 a.m. on Aug. 11 for catch-and-release only through Labor Day. A night fishing closure also will remain in place from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. through Nov. 30.

      Q: How does this affect fishing for other species?

      A: Fishing regulations for other species such as smallmouth bass, muskie and northern pike remain the same. During the night closure, there is an exception for muskie and northern pike anglers using artificial lures and sucker minnows longer than 8 inches.

      Q: Why did the DNR extend the closure?

      A: While the DNR wants to allow as much walleye fishing on Mille Lacs as possible, the state is also required to abide by cooperative agreements made with eight American Indian Chippewa bands. The two weeks of additional closure allows the state to abide by a harvest quota set earlier this year with the bands.

      The DNR and the bands agreed to harvest quotas of 44,800 pounds for state anglers and 19,200 pounds for tribal fishing. They also agreed that up to 75,000 pounds of walleye could be sustainably harvested from the lake from Dec. 1, 2016 to Nov. 30, 2017 in order to conserve the population

      That agreement allows the state to use a built-in buffer – the 11,000 pounds difference between the conservation cap of 75,000 pounds and the combined harvest quota of 64,000 pounds – in an attempt to allow catch-and-release walleye fishing through Labor Day, following the mid-summer closure.

      The latest creel survey data shows that state anglers reached their quota of 44,800 pounds of walleye caught from Mille Lacs in early July. Even though state anglers already have caught their quota of fish, the DNR is dipping into the allowed conservation reserve in order to reopen the season on Aug. 11.

      Q: Why has the walleye population in Mille Lacs declined? What is the DNR doing in the long-term to try to conserve the population?

      A: The vast majority of walleye that hatch do not survive to their third autumn in the lake. Walleye numbers have declined to the point that it has become important to protect spawning-sized walleye, particularly the class of walleye that hatched in 2013. It is important to protect the large 2013 year class to replenish aging spawning stock.  Most males from the 2013 class are now mature, but females will not start to contribute in large numbers until next spring. The state is committed to conserving the population of walleyes born in 2013 to improve and rebuild a sustainable population for the future.

      Q: Why do we count hooking mortality during a closed walleye season?

      A: The amount that state anglers can kill (as spelled out in state-bands agreements) also must include fish that die as a result of hooking mortality, the fish that die after being caught and then released back into the water. During the closure, some anglers still catch walleye incidentally and some of those fish die after being released. Under the state-band agreements, those dead fish must be calculated and counted against the state’s allocation.

      Q: How did this cooperative management between the state and the bands of Mille Lacs Lake come to be?   

      A: Recall that in 1999, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld lower-court decisions that allowed the Mille Lacs band and seven other Chippewa bands to exercise off-reservation fishing and hunting rights. The lower federal court also set up guidelines, known as stipulations and protocols, for both sides to follow. These stipulations and protocols provide a framework for how the bands and the state must work cooperatively to manage shared natural resources, including Mille Lacs fish.  In their agreements, the DNR and the bands are required to annually establish the number of walleye that can safely be harvested from Mille Lacs while ensuring sufficient remaining walleye in the lake for a healthy fishery.

      Q: If the walleye population is in decline, why are anglers catching so many?

      A: Fish are biting for two reasons. First, there is a shortage of food for larger walleye. Last fall’s assessment showed that larger walleye were thinner than average. Second, studies in many fisheries show that catchability actually increases when fish population decline.

      In Mille Lacs, walleye congregate in preferred spots rather than disperse evenly throughout the lake. Fewer fish in the lake means there’s more room in the preferred spots for fish to gather, and anglers find these spots where they can catch a larger portion of fish. Finally, while the walleye population has decreased considerably (by half or more), the amount of fishing pressure has declined by a lot more. This means that there are more walleye per angler fishing Mille Lacs today.

      Q: How is the DNR using science and research to help the walleye population?

      A: Mille Lacs Lake is the most studied lake in Minnesota. It is also a complex and changing system. The agency conducts a large number of surveys on the lake annually. These surveys include assessing the abundance of young walleye; setting 52 nets to assess adult abundance; using fine-mesh nets each summer to determine abundance of food (prey fish) for walleye; and using interviews with anglers around the lake (called creel surveys) to estimate the number of fish anglers are catching. The DNR also periodically tags walleye and other species to provide actual population estimates. We are tagging bass this year in cooperation with angling groups, and will be tagging walleye in 2018 and 2019 when the 2013 year class will be reaching full maturity.

      Q: What is the purpose of the external review the DNR has initiated?

      A: The DNR has asked Dr. Chris Vandergoot to lead an independent review of the DNR’s scientific approaches to manage Mille Lacs Lake. Vandergoot is a key member of the international team that co-manages a very significant walleye fishery in Lake Erie. He works for the U.S. Geological Survey in the Sandusky Lake Erie Biological station in Ohio. His review report will be available to the public in early 2018 and will help inform fisheries management decisions for the 2018 season.

      Q: What does the future look like for Mille Lacs walleye?

      A: It is unlikely that Mille Lacs walleye production will return to the levels that state anglers enjoyed over 20 years ago.  The ecosystem of Mille Lacs is going through extreme change, starting with increased water clarity in the mid-1990s, to impacts today from aquatic invasive species such as spiny water flea and zebra mussels. Longer growing seasons are also helping some species such as smallmouth bass but may be hurting others. While walleye will still be abundant, the future fishery will be more diverse, offering angling opportunities for a greater variety of fish.

      ###
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